This is the aptitude questions and answers section on 'Profit and Loss' with solutions and detailed explanation. Questions on profit and loss are based on important definitions and their applications.

The cost price of three varieties of oranges namely A, B and C is Rs 20/kg, Rs 40/kg and Rs 50/kg. Find the selling price of one kg of orange in which these three varieties of oranges are mixed in the ratio of 2 : 3 : 5 such that there is a net profit of 20%?

Explanation:

Cost price of one kg of orange in which the three varieties of oranges are mixed in the ratio 2 : 3 : 5 is equal to S where

S = 0.2 x 20 + 0.3 x 40 + 0.5 × 50

= 4 + 12 + 25

= Rs 41

Selling price per kg of oranges to ensure there is a net profit of 20%

= 1.2 x 41

= Rs 49.2

Cost price of one kg of orange in which the three varieties of oranges are mixed in the ratio 2 : 3 : 5 is equal to S where

S = 0.2 x 20 + 0.3 x 40 + 0.5 × 50

= 4 + 12 + 25

= Rs 41

Selling price per kg of oranges to ensure there is a net profit of 20%

= 1.2 x 41

= Rs 49.2

A sweet seller sells 3/5th part of sweets at a profit of 10% and remaining at a loss of 5%. If the total profit is Rs 1500, then what is the total cost price of sweets?

Explanation:

Assume A be the cost price.

Therefore,

[{(3/5) x A x (10/100)} – {(2/5) x A x 5/100}] = 1500

Or A = Rs 37,500

Assume A be the cost price.

Therefore,

[{(3/5) x A x (10/100)} – {(2/5) x A x 5/100}] = 1500

Or A = Rs 37,500

’A’ sold an article to ’B’ at a profit of 20%. ’B’ sold the same article to ’C’ at a loss of 25% and ’C’ sold the same article to ’D’ at a profit of 40%. If ’D’ paid Rs 252 for the article, then find how much did ’A’ pay for it?

Explanation:

Let the article costs ‘X’ to A

Cost price of B = 1.2X

Cost price of C = 0.75(1.2X) = 0.9X

Cost price of D = 1.4(0.9X) = 1.26X = 252

Amount paid by A for the article = Rs 200

Let the article costs ‘X’ to A

Cost price of B = 1.2X

Cost price of C = 0.75(1.2X) = 0.9X

Cost price of D = 1.4(0.9X) = 1.26X = 252

Amount paid by A for the article = Rs 200

If the absolute difference between the selling price of the article when there is 15% loss and 15% gain in selling a article is Rs 450, then what is the cost price of the article?

Explanation:

If C.P. = Rs 100

Given, 115% of C.P - 85% of C.P = Rs 30

When C.P. = Rs ’X’

115% of C.P - 85% of C.P = Rs 450

Therefore, X = 450/30 x 100

If C.P. = Rs 100

Given, 115% of C.P - 85% of C.P = Rs 30

When C.P. = Rs ’X’

115% of C.P - 85% of C.P = Rs 450

Therefore, X = 450/30 x 100

On selling an article at successive discounts of 20% and 25% a dealer makes a net profit of 20%, Find the net profit per cent if the dealer sells the same article at a discount of 25%.

Explanation:

Let the cost price and market price of the article be ’x’ and ’y’ respectively.

**Case 1**: Successive discounts of 20% and 25%

Selling price of a the article = (0.8)(0.75)(y) = 0.6y

Therefore, 0.6y = 1.2x or, y = 2x

**Case 2**: A single discount of 25%

Selling price of the article = 0.75y = 1.5x

Net profit per cent = [(1.5x - x)/x] 100 = 50%

Let the cost price and market price of the article be ’x’ and ’y’ respectively.

Selling price of a the article = (0.8)(0.75)(y) = 0.6y

Therefore, 0.6y = 1.2x or, y = 2x

Selling price of the article = 0.75y = 1.5x

Net profit per cent = [(1.5x - x)/x] 100 = 50%