Subjects

What happens when a computer is turned on?
FACEPrep · 5 min read
While a computer has several programs running in it, what happens when a computer is turned on? When a computer is turned on, a specific program called an operating system is started. An operating system is responsible for the proper functioning of the computer.
Operating Systems | Process Management
FACEPrep · 5 min read
A program in execution is called a process which is managed by process management. For example, when a program is written in any of the programming languages like C, C++, Java and compiled, a binary code is created by the compiler. Here the original code and the Binary code come under programs. Whereas the procedure of running the binary code becomes a process in the process management.
Operating Systems | CPU Scheduling
FACEPrep · 5 min read
CPU Scheduling of processes or work is done to complete the work on time. This typical CPU scheduling process includes both the I/O time and CPU time. MS-DOS is an uniprogramming system in which time spent waiting for I/O is wasted where CPU is free during this time in CPU Scheduling process. Whereas in multiprogramming systems, when a process is waiting for I/O another process can use CPU during CPU Scheduling process. This can be possible only in CPU Scheduling process.
Operating Systems | Process Scheduler
FACEPrep · 5 min read
The process scheduler aim is to assign processes that are to be executed by the processor or processors over time. Process scheduler sees that execution is done in a way that it meets system objectives such as throughput, response time and processor efficiency. Process scheduler divides this scheduling activity into three separate functions in many systems named as long, medium, and short-term scheduling.
Operating Systems | FCFS Scheduling Program | Part 1
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In FCFS scheduling algorithm, the concept is to find the average waiting time and the average turn around time with the burst time of given n processes. First come, first served (FCFS), is also known as First in, first out (FIFO) which is the simplest scheduling algorithm. The FCFS algorithm's job is to simply queue the processes in the order that they actually arrive in the ready queue.
Operating Systems | FCFS Scheduling Program | Part 2
FACEPrep · 5 min read
FCFS Scheduling for the processes with same arrival time is discussed earlier in the Program for FCFS Scheduling|Part 1. In this part, FCFS Scheduling when the processes have different arrival times will be discussed. In FCFS Scheduling algorithm, the concept is to find the average waiting time and the average turn around time with their given burst times and arrival times of n processes. The FCFS scheduling algorithm's job is to simply queue the processes in the order that they actually arrive in the ready queue.
Operating Systems | SJF Scheduling Program(Non- preemptive)
FACEPrep · 5 min read
SJF is a Shortest job first or shortest job next scheduling algorithm that picks the waiting process which has the smallest execution time to be executed next. SJF scheduling algorithm is also called as a Greedy Algorithm. SJF Scheduling algorithm is a non-preemptive algorithm.
Operating Systems | Round Robin Scheduling Program
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Round Robin Scheduling algorithm is a CPU scheduling algorithm. Round Robin Scheduling is used as one of the most common technique as a core in CPU scheduling. In this Round Robin scheduling algorithm, each process will be assigned a fixed time slot in a cyclic way.
Operating Systems | Priority Scheduling Program
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Priority scheduling one of the most common scheduling algorithms used in batch systems. In this priority scheduling algorithm, Each process is assigned with a priority and the process with the highest priority is to be executed first and so on. Here processes with the same priority are to be executed on first come first served basis.
Operating Systems | Convoy Effect
FACEPrep · 5 min read
The phenomenon in which the whole Operating System slows down due to some of the few slow processes in the system is called Convoy Effect. This convoy effect is interrelated with the First Come First Serve (FCFS) algorithm.
Operating Systems | Process Synchronization
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Process Synchronization means sharing system resources by processes in a such a way that, Concurrent access to shared data is handled thereby minimizing the chance of inconsistent data. Maintaining data consistency demands mechanisms to ensure synchronized execution of cooperating processes.Process Synchronization was introduced to handle problems that arose while multiple process executions.
Operating Systems | Critical Section
FACEPrep · 5 min read
A way to avoid trouble concerning shared storage is to find the same way to prevent more than one process from reading and writing the shared data simultaneously. The part of the program where the shared memory is accessed is called the critical section.To prohibit race conditions and inconsistent results, one must recognize the codes in the critical sections in each process or thread.
Operating Systems | Inter Process Communication(IPC)
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Inter process communication(IPC) means the processes to communicate with each other while they are running. IPC allows processes to synchronize their action without sharing the same address space.
Operating Systems | Memory Management
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about memory management, logical address, physical address and swapping.
Operating Systems | System calls
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about system calls in detail.
Operating Systems | Peterson's Algorithm
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about peterson's algorithm.
Operating Systems | System design and Implementation
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about the system design and implementation.
Operating Systems | Operations on Files
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about various operations on the files in operating systems.
Operating Systems | Readers-Writers Problem
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about the reader's writer's problem.
Operating System | Banker's Algorithm
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about banker's algorithm
Operating Systems | Fragmentation and Compaction
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about external and internal fragmentation along with compaction.
Operating Systems | Evaluation of Scheduling algorithms
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about the evaluation of scheduling algorithms by analytic evaluation, simulations and implementation of algorithms.
Operating Systems | Concept of Directories
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about the concept of directories.
Operating Systems | Deadlock Introduction
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about deadlock, its representation, prerequisites and strategies.
Operating Systems | Deadlock Detection And Recovery
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about how to detect and recover from a deadlock.
Operating Systems | Deadlock Prevention And Avoidance
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about the prevention and avoidance of deadlocks
Operating Systems | Principles of security design
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about the principles of security design
Operating Systems | Spooling and Device Reservation
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about the concept called spooling and device reservation
Operating Systems | Concept of Threads
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about the concept of threads.
Operating Systems | User Level thread Vs Kernel Level thread
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will see discuss about the user level and kernel level threads.
Operating Systems | Multithreading models
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about the multithreading models called many to one, many to many, and one to one model.
Operating Systems | Partition allocations
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about the contiguous allocation scheme which has single and multiple partition allocations in it.
Operating Systems | Virtual memory
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about virtual memory.
Operating Systems | Trashing
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about the topic thrashing.
Operating Systems | Paging
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about paging concept.
Operating Systems | Segmentation
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about the concept of segmentation.
Operating Systems | Kernel Data Structure
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about the kernel data structure in detail.
Operating Systems | Page Replacement Algorithms
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about the page replacement algorithms namely OPT, FIFO, SC, NRU, LRU, etc
Operating Systems | Disk Space Management
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about the disk space management.
Operating Systems | Disk Scheduling Algorithms
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about the disk scheduling algorithms.
Operating Systems | Disk Errors and Bad blocks
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about disk errors and bad blocks.
Operating Systems | Concept of Files
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about files and its attributes.
Operating Systems | File Allocation Methods
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about three types of file allocation methods.
Operating Systems | Backup and Cache
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about backup and cache.
Operating Systems | Security and Protection
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about threats and attacks on the security.
Operating Systems | Protection Mechanisms
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about protection mechanisms like domain,access matrix and encryption.
Operating Systems | System Threats
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about system threats called computer worms and viruses.
Operating Systems | Producer-Consumer Problem
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about producer-consumer problem also known as bounded buffer problem.
Operating Systems | Dining Philosopher's Problem
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about the dining philosophers problem.
Operating Systems | Error Handling
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article we will discuss about error handling in kernel I/O Subsystem.
Circuit Switching VS Packet Switching
FACEPrep · 5 min read
The major difference between Circuit switching and Packet switching are discussed here.
Difference between Virtual Circuits and Datagram Networks
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Differences between Virtual Circuits and Datagram Networks are dicussed here.
Network Topologies
FACEPrep · 5 min read
The various Computer networks topologies and their working are given here
LAN Technologies | ETHERNET
FACEPrep · 5 min read
This articles discusses about LAN, Ethernet, Pure Aloha and Slotted Aloha.
Stop and Wait ARQ
FACEPrep · 5 min read
The basic elements of ARQ and the working of Stop and Wait ARQ are explained here.
Sliding Window Protocol
FACEPrep · 5 min read
The working of sliding window with examples is given below.
Sliding Window Protocol
FACEPrep · 5 min read
In this article, we will discuss two protocols. They are: Go-back-N Selective Repeat ARQ
Error Detection Techniques
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Some popular techniques for error detection are discussed here.
Basics of Wi-Fi
FACEPrep · 5 min read
The differences between BSS and ESS are discussed here.
Program to remotely Power On a PC over the internet using the Wake-on-LAN protocol.
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Program to remotely Power On a PC over the internet using the Wake-on-LAN protocol is discussed here.
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) | Computer Networks
FACEPrep · 5 min read
The working of ICMP is explained below.
Network Layer | Introduction and IPv4 Datagram Header
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Functions of network layer and IPv4 datagram header are dicussed here.
Network Layer | Ipv4 Datagram Fragmentation and Delays
FACEPrep · 5 min read
How is datagram fragmentation done in IPv4 is discussed here.
IP Addressing | Introduction and Classful Addressing
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Classful addressing and its problems are discussed here.
IP Addressing | Classless Addressing
FACEPrep · 5 min read
This article discusses about subnetting and an example as to how to calculate various parameters for subnetting.
OSI Layers
FACEPrep · 5 min read
OSI model consists of seven layers. These are explained below.
Computer Networks | Traceroute
FACEPrep · 5 min read
short desc
What’s difference between Ping and Traceroute?
FACEPrep · 5 min read
short desc
Computer Networks | Congestion Control
FACEPrep · 5 min read
short desc
Leaky Bucket Algorithm| Computer Networks
FACEPrep · 5 min read
short desc
IPv4 Vs IPv6
FACEPrep · 5 min read
The difference between IPv4 and IPv6 is discussed here.
How DHCP server dynamically assigns IP address to a host?
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Working of DHCP, its entities and how it assigns an IP address to the host are explained here.
Difference between HTTP and HTTPS
FACEPrep · 5 min read
The difference between HTTP and HTTPS is discussed below.
What’s difference between HTML and HTTP ?
FACEPrep · 5 min read
The difference between HTML and HTTP are discussed below.
What’s difference between The Internet and The Web ?
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Difference between internet and web is explained here.
RSA Algorithm in Cryptography
FACEPrep · 5 min read
short desc
Difference between TCP and UDP
FACEPrep · 5 min read
The differences between TCP and UDP are given below.
Application layer protocols
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Various application layer protocols are explained here.
Why does DNS use UDP and not TCP?
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Why does DNS protocol use UDP instead of TCP is explained here.
Lexical Analysis
FACEPrep · 5 min read
The first phase of compiler is discussed in detail in this article.
Introduction to Syntax Analysis
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Syntax Analysis explained with apt examples
First and then Follow
FACEPrep · 5 min read
FIRST and FOLLOW sets are explained with apt examples in this article.
FIRST Set in Syntax Analysis
FACEPrep · 5 min read
FIRST set in compiler design, its applications and syntax are explained in detail with apt examples.
FOLLOW Set in Syntax Analysis
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Follow set in compiler design analysis is explained with apt examples in this article.
Classification of Context Free Grammars
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Different properties of Context Free Grammars and their classifications are explained in detail.
Ambiguous Grammar
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Ambiguous Grammars and Unambiguous Grammars are explained in detail with apt examples.
Introduction Ambiguity and Parser
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Role of Parser, ambiguity grammar and their types are explained in this article with apt examples.
Bottom Up or Shift Reduce Parsers
FACEPrep · 5 min read
We discuss a method to build the parse tree from leaves to root usinga Bottom - Up parsers (also called Shift Reduce Parsers due to the reduction of the input string w to the start symbol of a grammar by tracing out the rightmost derivations of w in reverse).
Parsing SLR, CLR and LALR Parsers
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Different Parts of Bottom - Up parser or shift reduce Parser are explained in detail with examples.
Syntax Directed Translation (SDT)
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Syntax Directed Translations (SDT) is explained in detail with apt examples.
Intermediate Code Generation
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Generations of Intermediate codes in Compiler Design is explained in this article.
Runtime Environment in a Compiler Design
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Different types of calling a function and different runtime environments are explained in detail.
Addressing Modes
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Addressing modes and their types
Introduction to machine instructions in micro-controllers.
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Introduction to machine instructions: Syntax and examples provided.
Computer Arithmetic Operations 1
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Arithmetic Operations using 1's and 2's complement. Sign bit representations. Floating point number representations.
Computer Arithmetic Operations Part 2
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Arithmetic operations: Add, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division using signed and unsigned numbers.
Difference between one's and two's compliment.
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Difference between 1's complement and 2's complement. Formulas to calculate them and relationship among them are discussed.
Cache Memory
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Cache Memory Organisation. Miss penalty, Different levels in cache memory and advanced optimizations ofcache are explained.
Introduction to Cache Memory
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Cache Memory, Different types of mappings and replacement policies are elaborately discussed.
Different modes of transfer: Programmed I/O, I/O Interface Interrupts and Direct access memory.
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Different modes of transfer: Programmed I/O, I/O Interface Interrupts and Direct access memory.
Pipelining: Working/Design/Use/Advantages/Disadvantages explained.
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Pipelining: Working/Design/Use/Advantages/Disadvantages explained.
Pipelining Dependencies and Data Hazard
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Data Hazard and Dependencies in the concept of Pipelining in Computer Organisation and Architecture is explained lucidly in this article.
Pipelining - Types and Stalling
FACEPrep · 5 min read
Pipelining - Types and Stalling