Standard Operator Functions in Python | Operators as Functions

As you may know, Python has several inbuilt operators (arithmetic, bitwise, logical, assignment, relational etc) which are used to perform various mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, division etc. Similarly, Python has many predefined functions that can be used as a substitute for these in-built operators and these functions are called operators functions in Python. The operator module consists of these operator functions and hence you need to import this module before you use these functions in your code. For example, mul() function in the operator module corresponds to the * operator. This means both of these perform the same operation of multiplying two operands. Let us now discuss some of these operator functions in Python.

List of Arithmetic Operator Functions in Python 

Let us assume two operands a & b. Below is the list of operator functions in Python used to perform various arithmetic operations. operator functions in python
Operator Function Operation Description Equivalent inbuilt Operator
add (a, b) Addition This function returns the addition of the given arguments a & b + (Addition arithmetic operator)
sub (a, b) Subtraction This function returns the difference of the given arguments a & b – (Subtraction arithmetic operator)
mul (a, b) Multiplication This function returns the product of the given arguments a & b * (Multiplication arithmetic Operator)
truediv (a, b) Division This function returns the quotient on dividing a by b / (Division arithmetic operator)
floordiv (a,b) Floor Division This function also returns the quotient on dividing a by b. But unlike truediv, floordiv returns only integer values. // (Floor division arithmetic operator)
mod (a, b) Modulus This function returns the remainder obtained on dividing a by b % (Modulo division operator)
pow (a, b) Power This function returns the value when the operand a is raised to the power of operand b. ** (Exponential arithmetic operator)
Here, is a program to perform basic arithmetic operations using operator functions
from operator import *
num1 = 40
num2 = 20

#addition
print(add(num1, num2))

#subtraction
print(sub(num1, num2))

#multiplication
print(mul(num1, num2))

#division 
print(truediv(num1, num2))

#floor division
print(floordiv(num1, num2))

#modulus
print(mod(num1, num2))

#power
print(pow(num1, num2))
Output:
60
20
800
2.0
2
0
109951162777600000000000000000000

List of Relational Operator Functions in Python 

Below is the list of operators functions in Python which are equivalent to inbuilt relational operators.

operator functions in python

Operator FunctionOperationDescriptionEquivalent inbuilt Operator
It (a, b)Less Than This function checks if a is less than b or not. It returns True if a is less than b, else it returns False.<
le (a, b) Less Than or Equal ToThis function checks if a is less than or equal to b or not. Returns True if a is less than or equal to b, else returns False.<=
gt (a, b)Greater ThanThis function checks if a is greater than b or not. It returns True if a is greater than b, else it returns False.>
ge (a, b)Greater Than or Equal ToThis function checks if a is greater than or equal to b or not. It returns True if a is greater than or equal to b, else it returns false.>=
eq (a, b)Equal ToThis function checks if a is equal to b or not. It returns True if a is equal to b, else it returns False.=
ne (a, b)Not Equal ToThis function checks if a is not equal to b or is equal. It returns True if a is not equal to b, else it returns False.!=

Here is an example program showing the various relational operator functions.

from operator import *
num1 = 40
num2 = 20

#checking if a is less than b
print(lt(num1, num2))

#checking if a is less than or equal to b
print(le(num1, num2))

#checking if a is greater than b
print(gt(num1, num2))

#checking if a is greater than or equal to b
print(ge(num1, num2))

#checking if a is equal to b
print(eq(num1, num2))

#checking if a is not equal to b
print(ne(num1, num2))
Output:
False
False
True
True
False
True

List of Bitwise Operator Functions in Python 

In Python, we have inbuilt bitwise operators such as and, or, xor, not. Below are the standard operator functions for these operations.

operator functions in python

Operator FunctionOperationDescriptionEquivalent inbuilt Operator
and_(a, b)AND This function computes bitwise and of the arguments a, b.a & b
or_(a, b)ORThis function computes the bitwise or of the arguments a, b.a | b
xor(a, b)XORThis function computes the bitwise xor of the arguments a, b.a ^ b
invert(a)NOTThis function computes the bitwise inversion of a.~ a

Below is a program to understand these operator functions better.

from operator import *
num1 = 3
num2 = 4

#performing AND operation 
print(and_(num1, num2))

#performing OR operation
print(or_(num1, num2))

#perforning XOR operation
print(xor(num1, num2))

#performing NOT operation
print(invert(num1))
Output:

0
7
7
-4

Object Related Operator Functions in Python 

Below are a few operator functions used in objects such as lists, tuples, strings, etc to access the elements of the object.

1) setitem (object_name, position, value)

This function is used to update a particular value at a particular position in a list. This function cannot be applied to a tuple as tuples are immutable.  For example,

from operator import *
list1 = [20, 30.67, "FACE Prep"]
setitem(list1, 1, 50)
print(list1)
Output:
[20, 50, 'FACE Prep']

Explanation: In the above-given code, using the setitem function, we assign the value 50 at index 1.

2) delitem (object_name, position)

This function is used to delete a particular item from an object. For instance,

from operator import *
list1 = [20, 30.67, "FACE Prep"]
delitem (list1, 1)
print(list1)
Output:
[20, 'FACE Prep']

3) getitem (object_name, position)

This function is used to retrieve a particular value from a particular position of an object, be it List, tuple or String. For example,

from operator import *
list1 = [20, 30.67, "FACE Prep"]
print(getitem(list1, 2))
Output:
FACE Prep

4) concat (object_name1, object_name2)

This function is used to concatenate or join elements of two objects. For example,

from operator import *
list1 = [20, 30.67, "FACE Prep"]
list2 = [40, 50.98, "Python"]
print(concat(list1, list2))
Output:
[20, 30.67, 'FACE Prep', 40, 50.98, 'Python']

5) contains(object_name, value)

This function is used to check if a particular element is present in a particular object or not. For instance,

from operator import *
list1 = [20, 30.67, "FACE Prep"]
print(contains(list1, "FACE Prep"))
OutputTrue